November 14 is the day of the fight against diabetes. Nona Martirosyan
Realizing the importance of the disease and raising public awareness, we prepared a list of questions about diabetes frequently asked by patients, that were answered by Nona Martirosyan, Associate Professor of Nairi Medical Center, PhD.
-What is diabetes?
-Diabetes mellitus is a chronic hyperglycemia with absolute or relative insulin deficiency, which is accompanied by disorders of all metabolic areas and the development of complications brought by it, in the form of micro-microangiopathies.
In case of which symptoms, we should consult an endocrinologist?
Diabetes mellitus causes general weakness: dry mouth, insatiable thirst, excessive urination, weight loss, and itching. These symptoms can occur individually or some of them in the same time.
What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
We differentiate type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent; the clinical symptoms are acute; the treatment is carried out with insulin therapy. It is manifested in children and young people.
Type 2 diabetes develops in adulthood, possibly for many years and without a symptom, and it is found by random examination. The treatment is carried out, first of all, by lifestyle changes (diet, physical activity) and with sugar tablets.
Taking into account these circumstances, it is necessary to carry out regular examinations.
Regarding children, in case of which symptoms we should consult an endocrinologist?
Children mainly develop type 1 diabetes, combined with acute, clinical manifestations, so the disease immediately makes itself felt. The child begins to drink a lot of water, lose weight, and may even make his debut in a diabetic coma.
Can a mother with diabetes have a healthy baby? What is the picture in case of both parents with diabetes?
The answer to the first question is, definitely, yes, she can have a healthy child.
If one parent has type 1 diabetes, the risk of diabetes is 5-8%, if both are sick, then 23%, if one parent has type 1 and the other has type 2 diabetes, the risk of diabetes is 8- 10%. In case of type 2 diabetes, the percentage is higher.
-How fast does diabetes develop?
In case of type 1 diabetes the disease develops very quickly, combined with acute clinical manifestations, in case of type 2 the picture is different: it can be hidden, the beginning is gradual.
-In what cases does obesity lead to diabetes?
Obesity itself is a separate risk factor in the development of diabetes - if It is about abdominal obesity. The higher the level of obesity, the greater the risk of developing diabetes. In the case of first-degree obesity, the risk of diabetes doubles, in the case of the second degree - increases 5 times, in the case of the third degree - 10 times.
Abdominal obesity develops insulin overproduction, a decrease of peripheral tissue sensitivity to insulin, which underlies the development of type 2 diabetes.
-How often should you check your blood sugar?
It should be checked not once a day, as it is accepted among the population, but at least four times a day. in the morning, when we are hungry, two hours after eating, during the day, because in diabetes it is important not only the absolute amount of sugar, but also the fluctuation during the day.
-How fast do they switch from pill to insulin injection? In which cases?
Switching from insulin pill to insulin injection is done in case of clear indication, when sugar pills in different combinations are no longer effective, or when it is necessary to avoid complications. In such cases, sugar tablets are combined with insulin therapy or complete insulin therapy is realized.
-What is an insulin pump?
Insulin pump is mainly used for type 1 diabetes. It is placed on the anterior surface of the abdomen, ensuring a constant supply of insulin to the body. Here, the patient is trained so that he can calculate his diet correctly and, accordingly, regulate the operation of the insulin pump in the right dose.
-How effective are the alternative methods?
The so-called alternative method for me is only a change of lifestyle, first of all physical activity. Exercise should be at least 150 minutes a week with above-average activity. It is important to maintain the right diet and take the right dose.
-What to eat during diabetes?
In the case of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1), food is not considered a measure. The patient should calculate the number of breads that he / she has taken and perform insulin therapy accordingly.
In case of Type 2, the picture is different. Much attention is paid to the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of food. Sweets, juice, chocolate, cake are prohibited.
White bread is not allowed, and pasta, cereals, rice should be taken only in soups. The use of fruits and vegetables is encouraged, except carrots, beets (limited), potatoes, bananas, grapes, figs, apricots, etc. Consumption of fruits immediately after eating or at bedtime is not recommended. Dairy products and meat products should be used only with low fat content.
-Which sugar substitute is the best?
All of them are allowed according to the set size, but I will single out the honey herb, a natural sugar substitute, which is safe, has a high taste.
-Is diabetes curable?
This disease is a chronic disease. It is possible to prevent the complication of the disease in case of permanent treatment. Patients should always take antihypertensive drugs, maintain a diet, exercise, and control their blood sugar levels (self-monitoring).
What can or cannot be done to reduce the risk of developing diabetes?
As we have already mentioned, the role of hereditary predisposition is great, but the revision of the lifestyle, the regulation of the diet, as well as the above-average physical load will help to avoid the diabetes mellitus and its complications.
It is very important to detect patients in the pre-diabetes stage, when lifestyle changes can prevent the development of diabetes.
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